Scientific writing has two goals: to share with your reader of new developments in a field that is specific and also to address existing questions with new evidence.

Academic research paper sample that is writing

  • Academic writing within the sciences addresses new scientific developments and clarifications of scientific questions, most regularly in the shape of a lab report, journal article, or literature review. The natural sciences include fields such as for instance astronomy, biology, chemistry, and physics; the social sciences include anthropology, economics, linguistics, political science, sociology, and psychology.
  • Scientific papers commonly proceed with the IMRAD model, which stands for introduction, method, results, and discussion.
  • The introduction should describe elements such since the paper’s motivation, aim, problem, tested hypothesis, novel contributions, background materials, and a synopsis of this material that is subsequent.
  • The methods section should cover the writer’s assumptions, system model, simulation model, and performance measures. For an original study, when, where, and just how the study was conducted, what materials were used, and who had been included in the study groups should all be included.
  • In describing the outcome, the writer should include any empirical data, charts, and plots that convey the answer to the investigation question, and state whether or not the research hypothesis was proven or perhaps not proven.
  • The discussion section should analyze the outcomes, state why they matter, contextualize them with regards to existing research, and suggest the implications for future research.
    • objectivity: the capability to perceive a topic without having to be impacted by personal biases or emotions.
    • bias: a opinion that is definite position on a topic.
    • lab report: A step-by-step explanation associated with the materials, methods, data, results, analysis,
      conclusions, and references of an experiment.

    Scientific research papers report new discoveries, applying evidence to answer questions and identify patterns. Writing in these disciplines often takes the type of peer-reviewed journal articles, literature reviews, grant proposals, case studies, and lab reports.

    As an example, in an environmental-science lab report, a student might analyze research results to address or clarify a particular scientific development or question:

    “This study is designed to identify amounts of chlorine and phosphorus compounds in a stretch that is three-mile of Columbia River, which will be a place notable for salmon runs. An analysis of samples bought out a period that is two-year various locations within the three-mile college homework help stretch revealed the persistence of high degrees of phosphorous and chlorine compounds. Into the scholarly study, we examine the connection between salmon population together with persistence of those compounds.”

    Scientific papers require a great deal of preliminary work, including research, field work, and experimentation. Translating that work into writing may be difficult, but academic conventions provide a common template for communicating findings clearly and effectively.

    Writing when you look at the sciences seeks to describe complex phenomena in clear, straightforward prose that minimizes bias that is authorial. In addition it includes components of classical argument, since scientific papers are required to contextualize, analyze, and interpret the information at hand.

    Precision of Language

    Lab reports, case studies, as well as other types of scientific writing needs to be precise to be able to provide results that can be tested and reproduced.

    Attempt to use words that are simple sentences. Some students attempt to make their work sound more intellectual by making use of obscure words and long, elaborate sentences. In reality, the academy values precise words and detailed descriptions which can be still understandable to a lay audience. Don’t make an effort to mimic the stereotype of dense, convoluted academic writing. Instead, write as simply and clearly as you can. Precision is a key component of clarity.

    When you look at the sciences, precision has two main applications: using concrete examples, and using clear language to describe them. Defining your parameters accurately is vital. Don’t generalize—provide times that are exact measurements, quantities, and other relevant data whenever possible. Using precise, straightforward language to explain your work is also vital. This is simply not the time or location for flashy vocabulary words or rhetorical flourishes. Style, however, is still important: writing about the sciences does give you a n’t pass to write sloppily.


    The sciences aim for objectivity at each stage, from the procedures that are experimental the language utilized in the write-up. Science writing must convince its audience that its offering an important, innovative contribution; because of this, it has an argumentative character. Combining objectivity and argumentative writing can be challenging. Scientific objectivity has two requirements: your hypothesis needs to be testable, along with your results should be reproducible.

    The importance of objectivity in the sciences limits writers’ capacity to use persuasive rhetoric. However, it’s still necessary to make a case that is strong the value, relevance, and applicability of the research. Argumentative writing comes with a accepted place in scientific papers, but its role is limited. You might use persuasive language in the abstract, introduction, literature review, discussion of results, and conclusion, but avoid using it when you describe your methods and present your results.


    Many students struggle to transition from one topic to the next. Transitions are very well worth mastering—they would be the glue that holds your ideas together. Never assume that your reader will correctly guess the relationships between different subtopics; it is your responsibility to spell out these connections.

    Scientific Reasoning

    Keeping your chosen model in mind when you write often helps make sure your decisions and conclusions are logically consistent. Also, be cautious about logic traps such as for example faulty and bias causality. Researchers must account fully for their own biases, or personal preferences, prejudices, and preconceived notions. These can include cognitive bias (irrational thinking), cultural bias (the imposition of one’s own cultural standards upon research subjects), and sampling bias (the tendency during sample collection to incorporate some people in the intended sample more readily than the others).

    The body of a scientific paper generally consists of listed here sections: introduction (that might include a literature review), methods, results, and discussion.

    Learning Objectives

    Define each element of the IMRAD structure

    Key Takeaways

    Key Points

    • The IMRAD model could be the conventional structural way of academic writing into the sciences. The IMRAD model has four parts: introduction, methods, results, and discussion.
    • The literature review provides a synopsis of relevant research in your discipline. This might be included included in the introduction, or it might stand as the own section.
    • The strategy section should explain the method that you collected and evaluated your computer data.
    • If your project conducts an experiment or an data that is original, you really need to include a separate section that reports your outcomes.
    • The discussion section should analyze your outcomes without reporting any findings that are new.
    • IMRAD: An acronym for Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion—the conventional structure of a scientific paper.
    • literature review: A synthesis for the critical points of current knowledge in a given field, which includes significant findings in addition to theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic.
    • quantitative: Of research methods that depend on objective measurements and data analysis.
    • result: The discovery (or absence of discovery) that arises from the scientific method of investigation.
    • qualitative: Of research methods that creates an even more subjective understanding by studying a subject’s defining qualities and character.

    The format for the body of the paper varies depending on the discipline, audience, and research methods in the natural and social sciences. Generally, the body associated with paper contains an introduction, a methods section, results, and discussion. This method is known as IMRAD for short.

    These sections are often separate, although sometimes the email address details are combined with the methods. However, many instructors prefer that students maintain these divisions, since they are still learning the conventions of writing inside their discipline. Most journals that are scientific the IMRAD format, or variations from it, and even recommend that writers designate the four elements with uniform title headings.

    Make an effort to stay true every single section’s stated purpose. It is possible to cite relevant sources when you look at the methods, discussion, and conclusion sections, but again, save the lengthy discussion of these sources for the introduction or literature review. The outcomes section should describe your results without discussing their significance, although the discussion section should analyze your results without reporting any findings that are new. Think about each section as a training course served at a dinner—don’t that is fancy the soup into the salad or add leftover scraps through the entree to the dessert!