Hedging is a kind of language use which ‘protects’ your claims.

Using language with a amount that is suitable of can protect your claims from being easily dismissed. It can also help to indicate the known degree of certainty we now have in relation to the data or support.

Compare the following two texts that are short (A) and (B). You will notice that even though the two texts are, in essence, saying the thing that is same (B) has a significant quantity of extra language all over claim. A large number of this language is performing the function of ‘hedging’.

Compare the following two texts that are short (A) and (B). What number of differences would you see into the text that is second? What is the function/effect/purpose of each and every difference?

You will probably realize that (B) is much more ‘academic’, but it is important to understand why.

(A) Extensive reading helps students to boost their vocabulary.

(B) Research conducted by Yen (2005) appears to indicate that, for a substantial proportion of students, extensive reading may play a role in an improvement within their active vocabulary. Yen’s (2005) study involved learners aged 15-16 within the UK, although it may be applicable to many other groups. However, the study involved an sample that is opt-in which means that the sample students might have been more ‘keen’, or more involved in reading already. It would be useful to see if the findings writing papers in college differ in a wider sample.

(take note that Yen (2005) is a fictional reference used only for instance).

The table below provides some examples of language to make use of when knowledge that is making.

Look for samples of hedging language in your reading that is own add for this table.

Phrases for Hedging

Language Function with Example Phrases

1) Quantifiers

a fraction
a minority/majority of
a proportion of
to some degree

2) Appearance

appears to
has the appearance of
is similar to
shares characteristics with
appears to stay line with

3) Possibility

has the possibility of
has the potential to
is able to

4) Frequency

tends to
has a tendency to

5) Comparatively

in a less complicated way than .
more simply than …
When compared to …

In the context of …
…in certain situations…
Within some households…

7) Ev >Based on …
As indicated by …
According to …

8) Description in language

could be described as
could be considered to be
is sometimes labelled
can be equated to
the term is normally used to mean
the term is oftentimes used to refer to
this may indicate that …
this may claim that …

Language categories devised and compiled by Jane Blackwell

IOE Writing Centre Online

Self-access resources from the Academic Writing Centre at the UCL Institute of Education.

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Academic Writing Centre, UCL Institute of Education

Essays often sound tough, but they are the easiest way to publish a long answer.
In this lesson, we will have a look at how to write one.


Start your answer, and list what you will really about be writing

Write on the basic ideas which will answr fully your question


Re-write exactly what your ideas are and say why you have got answered them

Arguments, Keywords and Definitions

Before we start going right on through how an essay works, we need to go through three terms that people will used to describe what you do for essay writing structure.
Argument = all of the main points you are planning to write on in your essay.
Keywords = words which are important elements of the question
Definition = A one-sentence summary of the essay that is whole which write in your introduction.
We will go through some situations in a moment.

Basic Introduction

To publish your introduction, follow these steps. Each one of these steps means you begin a sentence that is new.

  • Rewrite the question using keywords, through the name of text(s) and author(s)
  • Write a single sentence answer (definition)
  • List every one of the main points of your argument

Example of an Introduction

Are pigs in a position to fly? (Question)
Pigs are unable to fly. (Re-write of question)
they can’t fly because their bodies don’t allow them to. (Definition)
they truly are too heavy to float, they do not have wings or propellers, plus they cannot control aircraft. (Main Points)

Your body forms most of the essay.
It’s the most part that is important of essay you write.
Within your body, you need to argue all of your points that are main explain why they answr fully your question.
Each main point should always be in a paragraph that is new.

Each main point should always be in a paragraph that is different. Each paragraph should be put down similar to this:

  • Topic Sentence: a sentence that is short you repeat one main point from your own introduction.
  • Discussion: Explain why your main point is right and give factors why.
  • Evidence: Proof you will get from a text, a quote, or a ‘fact’. It should prove that your particular answer is right.
  • Lead out: complete the main point so you are able to go right to the next.

Illustration of a physical body Paragraph

Pigs are way too heavy to float. (Topic Sentence)
Their large bodies and weight imply that they’re not able to float, which can be one way a creature can fly. To float a pig would have to be lighter than air. (discussion)
A pig weighs 200 kilograms, and as a result of this weight, it’s not lighter than air. (Evidence)
that is why, a pig is unable to float and cannot fly. (Lead out)

Conclusion of Essay Writing Structure

A conclusion is a short summary of everything you’ve got written in the body paragraph.
It should ‘tie’ everything together.

As pigs are not able to float, they do have wings and cannot control aircraft, they unable to go into the air, and therefore cannot fly.